Six sigma (6σ)
The statistical methods in solving problems
"It is a reorganization of a business philosophy, with proven statistical tools to improve efficiency and effectiveness."
Forrest Breyfogle, 2001
"It is a business process that allows companies to dramatically improve the design and control of their everyday business activities in ways that minimize chafing and their resources."
MJ Harry, 2000
"It is a method based on data processing to achieve almost perfect quality and differs from other quality efforts, as it identifies mistakes before they happen."
Joseph A. DeFeo 1999
It is an international methodology, based on the measurement and statistical data of a targeted treatment to improve the efficiency and reduce the deviation in a process that produces or is designed to produce a product, a service or transaction. Unlike quality control methodologies which have focused on detecting and correcting problems in various stages of execution of a process, the Six Sigma is a comprehensive study on the regeneration process, so that defects and errors do not occur. The Six Sigma methodology is reduced to implement five steps: the identification of the problem (Define), measurement of the parameters (Measurement), of their analysis (Analysis), the improvement of the status quo of the problem (Imrovement) and control to remain under the situation improved (Control). The above five steps internationally abbreviated described by the term DMAIC and their implementation are used, as appropriate, a number of statistical tools / techniques, such as:
- Flow chart
- Pareto chart
- Cause effect diagram (Figure Ishikawa, 1987)
- Correlation chart
- Affinity diagram
- Scatter diagram (plan of two variables)
- Experimental Design (Design Of Experiment)
- ANOVA (Analysis Of Variance)
- Reliability analysis
Business Elements has adapted and applied the Six Sigma methodology or uses selected, some of the tools and statistical techniques, to study and solve specific problems, for the design of new processes of a targeted results and statistical parameters correlated with with results. This approach has as its core the analysis of variance of characteristics or properties of a process and the systematic detection and elimination of the factors that cause it.
Regarding the determination of a specific problem, the analysis process of the body and defining measurable capacity indices (critical quality attributes) that reflect the performance level of this process. Developed, while the role of stakeholders, targets and milestones.
Regarding the determination of the parameters that may affect the critical quality attributes of the process and the installation of a system for measuring both of these parameters and the process results. If necessary, the ability of the measurement system is investigated by appropriate statistical techniques, - specifically -, repetition, reproducibility, stability and linearity.
It concerns the statistical analysis of data and interpretation of results, to identify the key variables that cause imperfections, in order to make understood why defects are created. The result is the determination of the variables affecting the combination change procedure.
It involves the quantification of the effect of variables at critical quality characteristics. Includes determining the maximum acceptable range of key variables, validation of the measurement system, modification and optimization of the process to remain in this range, with main tool the experimental design (Design Of Experiment). The design of tolerances is also an essential part of the optimization, to determine the tolerance levels affecting the desired effect.
Concerning the application and assurance that the modified process now allows key variables remain within the acceptable range, confirming the successful completion of the process.
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